Hemorrhoids are dilated veins within the anal canal causing pain, discomfort, and bleeding. The exact cause for hemorrhoids is unknown. Risk factors include chronic constipation, chronic straining, and pregnancy. Hemorrhoids can occur in individuals of all ages. Treatment of hemorrhoids begins with lifestyle modification with an emphasis on prevention of constipation. When hemorrhoids continue to cause pain or bleeding, or interfere with hygiene, surgery may be indicated. Surgery for removal of hemorrhoids is called Hemorrhoidectomy. It is performed at an ambulatory surgery center. Recovery takes 2-3 weeks.
Anal fistula is an abnormal communication between the anal canal and the peri-anal skin. It develops as a result of a peri-anal abscess. Treatment of an anal fistula includes an examination under anesthesia, fistulotomy, and or a seton placement. Depending on the nature of the fistula, the appropriate treatment will be chosen with the goal of preserving the function of anal sphincter. Surgery for anal fistula is performed at an ambulatory surgery center. Recovery takes 1-2 weeks.